Isabel Taylor, Research Director, National Centre for Social Research

“Help-seekers and multi-strugglers”: Who felt the worst mental health and financial effects of the pandemic?

8 December 2021

当2020年初COVID-19大流行袭击英国时,该国大部分地区关闭了,以试图防止人们感染和传播病毒。这意味着我们所有人的生活和工作方式几乎在一夜之间发生了根本性的变化。

While the UK government introduced a number of initiatives to try to reduce the worst consequences of the lockdown (including the furlough scheme, self-employment support grants and mortgage and rental holidays), it has become clear that the impact of the lockdown has hit some people particularly harshly.

Since summer 2020, the National Centre for Social Research (NatCen) has been working with the Money and Mental Health Policy Institute to explore the impact of the pandemic on people’s financial and mental wellbeing. Using data from Understanding Society (a large, UK-wide survey that has been collecting data at regular intervals since 2009), we have investigated how people’s financial situation has impacted their mental wellbeing since COVID-19 hit the UK.

This has included research into the impact of working from home and the furlough scheme on workers’ mental wellbeing. We have also used Understanding Society data, along with findings from focus groups with members of Money and Mental Health Policy Institute’s Research Community, to identify groups of people who have been particularly badly hit by the pandemic.

Who experienced the worst financial hit?

我们确定了六类人,他们在疫情前六个月有不同的财务经历。在分析中确定的两个最大群体的财务状况要么没有受到影响,要么有所改善,但有两组人受到的打击特别严重。“求助者”是因大流行遭受收入损失的人,需要外部财政支持来弥补这些损失,而“多重挣扎者”是在2020年初经济状况已经不稳定的人,他们需要通过大流行获得额外的、非工作的财政支持。

Mental distress increased across all groups of people after COVID-19 hit the UK, but both “Multi-strugglers” and “Help-seekers” were particularly badly hit. The “Multi-strugglers” group reported the highest levels of mental distress both before and during the pandemic, and this increased in April 2020 when more than half of “Multi-strugglers” reported significant mental distress.

In contrast, “Help-seekers” reported much lower levels of mental distress before the pandemic but experienced the biggest increase since then. By January 2021, “Help-seekers” were as likely as “Multi-strugglers” to report significant mental distress.

Proportion of respondents reporting significant mental distress byfinancial experience of the pandemic

Source: Understanding Society: Waves 1-10, 2009-2019 & Understanding Society: COVID-19 Study, 2020-2021

Understanding what’s driving increases in mental distress through the pandemic

To better understand the way individuals’ economic situation might be driving increased mental distress through the pandemic, we spoke to members of Money and Mental Health’s Research Community in focus groups, where we asked them to share their experiences of needing and accessing additional financial support.

这些焦点小组的参与者强调了一些可能导致痛苦增加的实际原因。例如,自雇人士(占“求助者”群体的三分之一)需要完成复杂的申请程序,才能获得政府的自雇收入支持计划。参与者告诉我们,这很难驾驭,在经历心理健康问题的人当中尤其如此。

Furthermore, while the government announced a £20 uplift to Universal Credit, this was not extended to legacy benefits (such as Job Seekers Allowance, Employment Support Allowance or the Working Tax Credit). It is people who have been out of work for an extended period of time, including due to ill-health or disability, who are likely to be in receipt of these benefits. This created a feeling of injustice amongst some of the most disadvantaged participants in the focus groups, many of whom would be classed as “Multi-strugglers”.

No single solution will support everyone through the pandemic

While the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the lives of everyone in the UK, it clearly has not affected everyone equally. Many people who were already struggling at the start of the pandemic were particularly badly hit; with half of “Multi-strugglers” reporting mental distress at the start of the pandemic. While some of the policies introduced, such as the furlough scheme – which has now ended – do appear to have offered a protective benefit to people who would have otherwise struggled more, there are still many who have experienced large increases in both financial and mental distress through the pandemic. People who were newly seeking financial support experienced a particularly large deterioration in their mental wellbeing, while many people with long-term financial difficulties continued to struggle.

As the financial consequences of the pandemic are likely to continue for some time, the financial and mental wellbeing of those worst hit by the pandemic cannot be ignored, both in the design and delivery of schemes to help these groups. Given the difficulties highlighted by members of Money and Mental Health’s Research Community, any continuing interventions for those most in need should be designed and implemented with people with mental health problems in mind.

This study was supported by the Economic and Social Research Council and UKRI: ES/V009877/1.

Data used:

  • 埃塞克斯大学,社会和经济研究所。(2020)。理解社会:2009-2019年波浪1- 10,1991 -2009年波浪1- 18,harmonised BHPS。(数据收集)。13日版。英国的数据服务。SN: 6614,http://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-6614-14
  • 埃塞克斯大学,社会和经济研究所。(2021)。了解社会:2020-2021年COVID-19研究。(数据收集)。8日版。英国的数据服务。SN: 8644, http://doi。org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-8644-8